The Sun Chronicle
Victor Gruen went to his grave cursing the structures for which he became famous — the enclosed shopping center, better known as “the mall.”
The renowned architect came to America in 1938 after fleeing the Nazis who took over his native Austria.
But four decades later and much to his distress, his architectural brainstorm had reshaped the retail landscape in a way he never intended, and he regretted it until the day he died.. . . more